How To Do CPR

how to do cpr

How To Do CPR for Adult-Child-Infant Overview

(Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation)

how to do cpr hand position

When to perform CPR 

CPR is performed on a person who is unresponsive and not breathing, or not breathing normally. If a person is unresponsive but still breathing normally different techniques apply.

A person is considered unresponsive if they appear to be sleeping but will not respond to loud noises or other attempts to rouse them.

For an infant (under 1 yr) flick the sole of their foot, if there is no response they are considered unresponsive.

What to Do When the Person Is Not Responding

Step One 

  • If the person is lying on their back gently tilt the head back, this will allow the  mouth to open slightly and extend the airway
  • Gently lift the chin just a little. This will open the airway further
  • If they are on their side perform the above two steps and leave them on their  side

tongue blocking airway image

Note how tilting the head back opens the airway by removing the tongue

Step Two 

  • Place your ear near the person’s mouth, place your other hand on their chest and look down across the chest.

LOOK – LISTEN – FEEL

Look for rise and fall of the chest 

Listen for air movement from the mouth and nose 

Feel for chest rise and fall and air from the mouth or nose

  •  If the person is not breathing call for professional help immediately and commence CPR
  • If the person is breathing place them in the recovery position and call for  help

Step Three

The Recovery Position 

  • Kneel beside the person
  • Place the arm nearest to you out at right angles to the body
  • Place the other arm across the person’s chest and up under the chin
  • Raise the knee on the leg furthest from you until the foot is flat on the floor
  • Place your hands on the person’s raised knee and shoulder
  • Gently pull until the person rolls over onto their side
  • Gently tilt the head back to open the airway

the recovery position

Step Four

  • Ensure that help is on the way and monitor breathing
  • If the person stops breathing perform CPR

Note

  • The recovery position for a child is the same as an adult
  • Be sure to gently tilt the head and lift the chin so fluids can drain from the mouth and the airway remains open
  • For an infant cradle them in your arms with the head facing down to allow fluids to drain from the mouth.

recovery position for baby

Adult CPR (cardio pulmonary resuscitation)

  • Make sure the person is on a firm surface
  • If you have to move the person but suspect a spinal injury, try to keep the spine and the head in line and move them gently
  • Remember CPR must be performed to preserve life and takes precedence over ALL injuries
  • (Be sure to stop any significant bleeding before performing CPR)
  • Place the heel of one hand on the lower half of the sternum and the other hand over the top
  • Lean over the patient so your arms are straight
  • Compress to 1/3 depth of the chest at 100 to 120 compressions per minute (2 per second)
  • Compressions should have equal time in both the compression and the     relaxation phase
  • Compress 30 times and give two rescue breaths. Repeat this sequence until help arrives or the patient begins breathing normally
  • Make sure the airway is open by gently tilting the head and lifting the chin

Rescue Breaths

  • Check in the mouth for any obstructions and remove them
  • Firmly pinch their nose to close it or place your cheek over their nose as   you give a rescue breaths
  • Take a deep breath and place your mouth over theirs
  • Blow into the mouth and watch for rise and fall of the chest. (each breath should take one second)
  • Lift your mouth and allow the chest to fall
  • Repeat one more time
  • If the person’s chest is not rising as you blow check you have a good mouth to mouth seal
  • Open the mouth and check for obstructions. Remove and continue CPR

what is cpr head tilt and breath

The most important aspect of CPR is good compressions at a constant rate. Do Not Stop Compressions until your patient responds, medical assistance is available, or you are too exhausted to continue

  • If the patient begins to breathe normally again stop CPR and place them into   the recovery position
    • Keep monitoring their breathing until help arrives

cpr hand position

Hand Position For Adult And Child CPR

 

Child CPR (cardio pulmonary resuscitation)

  • Make sure the person is on a firm surface
  • If you have to move the person but suspect a spinal injury, try to keep the spine and the head in line and move them gently
  • Remember CPR must be performed to preserve life and takes precedence over ALL injuries
  • (Be sure to stop any significant bleeding before performing CPR)
  • Place the heel of one hand in the centre of the chest (you may use one or two hands)
  • Lean over the patient so your arms are straight
  • Compress to 1/3 depth of the chest at 100 to 120 compressions per minute (2 per second)
  • Compressions should have equal time in both the compression and the     relaxation phase
  • Compress 30 times and give two rescue breaths.
  • Repeat this sequence until help arrives or the patient begins breathing normally
  • Make sure the airway is open by gently tilting the head and lifting the chin

Rescue Breaths

  • Check in the mouth for any obstructions and remove them
  • Firmly pinch their nose to close it or place your cheek over their nose as   you give a rescue breaths
  • Take a deep breath and place your mouth over theirs
  • Blow into the mouth and watch for rise and fall of the chest. (each breath  should take one second)
  • Lift your mouth and allow the chest to fall
  • Repeat one more time
  • If the person’s chest is not rising as you blow check you have a good mouth to mouth seal
  • Open the mouth and check for obstructions. Remove and continue CPR

child cpr

The most important aspect of CPR is good compressions at a constant rate. Do Not Stop Compressions until your patient responds, medical assistance is available, or you are too exhausted to continue

  • If the patient begins to breathe normally again stop CPR and place them into the recovery position
  • Keep monitoring their breathing until help arrives

Infant CPR (cardio pulmonary resuscitation)

 

  • Make sure the person is on a firm surface
  • If you have to move the person but suspect a spinal injury, try to keep the spine and the head in line and move them gently
  • Remember CPR must be performed to preserve life and takes precedence over ALL injuries
  • (Be sure to stop any significant bleeding before performing CPR)
  • Place two fingers in the centre of the chest
  • Compress to 1/3 depth of the chest at 100 to 120 compressions per minute (2 per second)
  • Compressions should have equal time in both the compression and the   relaxation phase
  • Compress 30 times and give two rescue breaths. Repeat this sequence until help arrives or the patient begins breathing normally
  • Make sure the airway is open by placing a thin folded towel under the neck and shoulders

Rescue Breaths

  • Make sure the person’s airway is open by placing a thin folded towel under the neck and shoulders
  • Check in the mouth for any obstructions and remove them
  • Take a deep breath and place your mouth over the nose and mouth of the infant.
  • Blow and watch for rising of the chest
  • Lift your mouth and allow the chest to fall
  • Repeat one more time
  • Look Listen and Feel for breathing
  • If the person’s chest is not rising as you blow check you have a good mouth to mouth seal
  • If there is still no chest rise, open the mouth and check for obstructions. Remove and continue CPR

infant cpr

The most important aspect of good CPR is good compressions at a constant rate. Do Not Stop Compressions until your patient responds, medical assistance is available, or you are too exhausted to continue

 

  • If the patient begins to breathe normally again stop CPR and place them   into the recovery position
  • Keep monitoring their breathing until help arrives

Hands Only CPR

 

To put it simply, Hands Only CPR is resuscitation without any rescue breaths. There is no mouth to mouth involvement.

Hands only CPR is proven to be just as effective as traditional CPR in out of hospital cardiac arrest. Although there are some scenarios where rescue breaths may be more beneficial, such as working on drowning victims, those suffering carbon monoxide poisoning, infants and children.

Except for giving mouth to mouth, CPR remains the same.

hands only cpr

More Information

Should I Do Mouth to Mouth Resuscitation?

The 2010 guidelines set out by the American Heart Association (AHA) recommend good, constant compressions without mouth to mouth as a viable alternative to traditional resuscitation, and ILCOR (International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation); found that mouth to mouth just wasn’t necessary for most people when doing CPR.

The Facts

Compressions Are the Answer

The purpose of doing CPR is to build up perfusion pressure, providing a constant blood supply to the brain. As soon as we stop compressions to give mouth to mouth the perfusion pressure drops and the brain is without an adequate blood supply. Studies have shown Maintaining this blood supply is crucial to a good outcome.

The AHA now recommends: If you see an adult suddenly collapse call for medical assistance and press hard and fast on the chest. (Hands only CPR)

In Queensland Australia, the Ambulance Service is actively teaching the public hands-only CPR


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